Modernisation of the waste management approaches in Ukraine within the guidelines of the European green deal
AbstractThe state of waste management problem solving has been considered in the article, the indicators of their formation, processing and disposal have been analysed. It has been shown that compared to previous years, the number of the communities with separate collection of waste and the number of incinerators has increased, but the share of waste that is recycled and disposed remains very low (6,3%).The main problems in the field of waste management are significant amounts of generated household waste, landfills, outdated managerial methods, lack of opportunities and people's unwillingness to sort waste, lack of opportunities for separate collection and recycling of different types of waste.Ukraine is developing national legislation in the sphere of waste management, in particular, it adopted the National Waste Management Strategy until 2030, the National Waste Management Plan until 2030, the bill “On the Waste Management”, which indicates the implementation of basic principles and provisions of European legislation in the sphere of waste management.Based on the analysis of cases and practices of European Union countries (Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, Poland), the proposals for introduction a number of economic instruments have been provided, in particular: stimulating the recycling of household waste; full reimbursement of expenses due to the inclusion in the tariff for household waste of all losses associated with the provision of such services; introduction of a mechanism for full financing of the waste management system, taking into account the principles of “polluter pays”, "extended producer responsibility" and "pay for what you throw away"; reforming the system of conducting a tender for the provision of services for the removal of household waste; improvement of the procedure for setting the tariff for household waste management services.It has been recommended that local governments should intensify activities in the direction of: development and approval of local programs (strategies) in the sphere of waste management and plans (schemes) for sanitation of settlements at the local level; attracting investment in the development of appropriate infrastructure for separate collection, sorting and disposal of solid waste; creation of specialised municipal waste collection points and their acceptance of certain types of household waste; conducting an informational and educational campaign for stimulation of waste sorting; formation of a system of evaluation indicators and monitoring of the level of municipal waste management at local and regional levels.
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