Conceptual framework for the development of e-democracy
AbstractIn proposed paper, the current state and main trends in the development of the conceptual foundations of e-democracy have been described. A number of definitions such as "model of electronic democracy" (e-democracy), "electronic citizen" (e-citizen), "electronic bureaucrat" (e-bureaucrat) have been proposed. These definitions based on the analysis of the conceptual and categorical apparatus of the sphere of e-democracy. The classical classifications of e-democracy models by a number of features have been considered, such as: geographical (Anglo-Saxon, European-Continental, Asian models), functional, and a feature that determines the presence of connections between subjects (government, business, citizen). The key characteristics based on the analysis e-democracy models for geographical features are summarized. The features and disadvantages inherent in these models are presented. The features characteristic of the national model of e-democracy have been formulated. The list of attributes for classifying e-democracy models has been expanded, an attribute has been added – the degree of democratic processes automation. The indicated attribute was used to formulate its own classification, it contains three levels – initial (partial automation), developed (activation of processes associated with the growth of citizens' e-participation in public administration processes) and smart level (forecasting processes, analytics, etc.). The basic processes and the list of e-democracy tools inherent to the models of each level have been defined. At the same time, each next level includes all the previous level processes and tools of e-democracy, plus additional processes and tools that distinguish it from the previous level. In order to determine the degree of each levels development for the indicated e-democracy models classification, a criterion of the population coverage level by e-participation (by e-democracy tools) has been proposed. The degree of intellectual digitalization underlying the proposed classification corresponds to the approach, which reflects the classical foundations of democracy and in no way contradicts them.
Hrytsiak, N. V., & Solovjov, S. H. (2015). Elektronna demokratiia: navchal’nyj posibnyk [Electronic democracy], Kiev: National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Malynovskyi, V. Ya., Hrytsiak, N. V., & Semenchenko, A. I. (2017). Vstup do kursu. Kontseptualni zasady elektronnoho uriaduvannia ta elektronnoi demokratii [Introduction to the course. Conceptual foundations of e-government and e-democracy]. Elektronne uriaduvannia ta elektronna demokratiia – E-Government and electronic democracy. A. I. Semenchenko, V. M. Dreshpak (Eds.). Kiev: National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Semenchenko, A. I., Serenok, A. O. (2017). Elektronne uriaduvannia: osnovy ta stratehii realizatsii [E-Government: foundations and implementation strategies], Elektronne uriaduvannia ta elektronna demokratiia – E-Government and electronic democracy. A. I. Semenchenko, V. M. Dreshpak (Ed.). Kiev: National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Kadlubovych, T. I. (2011). Liudyna i polityka [Man and politics]. Kiev: KNUTD [in Ukrainian].
Synytskyi, K., Oliinyk, Ya., Mikhalova, M. et al. (2010). Krashchi praktyky vprovadzhennia elektronnoho uriaduvannia: zarubizhnyi dosvid [E-Government Best Practices: Foreign Experience]. Metodychni materialy do navchalnoi dystsypliny: "Teoretyko-metodolohichni, orhanizatsiini ta instytutsiini osnovy elektronnoho uriaduvannia" – Teaching materials: "Theoretical, methodological, organizational and institutional foundations of e-government". S. A. Chukut, O. V. Zahvoiska (Eds.). Kiev [in Ukrainian].
Pro skhvalennia Kontseptsii rozvytku elektronnoi demokratii v Ukraini ta planu zakhodiv shchodo yii realizatsii: rozporiadzhennia Kabinetu ministriv Ukrainy vid 8 lystopada 2017 r. № 797-r [On approval of the Concept of e-democracy development in Ukraine and the plan of measures for their implementation: Order of the Cabinet of Ministers Ukrainy from October 8, 2017 No. 797-r]. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/797-2017-%D1%80.
Shliakhtun, P.P. (2005). Politolohiia (teoriia ta istoriia politychnoi nauky) [Politology (theory and history of political science)]. Kyiv: Lybid [in Ukrainian].
Fareed, Z. (2004). The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Grossman, L. K. (1995). The Electronic Republic. Reshaping Democracy in the Information Age. N.Y.: Viking (20th Century Fund).
Kuenzi, R. Teaching students how to live democratically. Retrieved from https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/directdemocracy/political-education_teaching-students-how-to-live-democratically/44859236.
Sachs, J. (2011). The Price of Civilization. New York: Random House.
Quirke, S., & Freeman, J. (2013). Understanding E-Democracy. Journal for E-Democracy and Open Government, 5(2), 141–154. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/30343351.pdf.
United Nations e-Government Survey 2018. Gearing E-Government to support transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies. (2018). Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for Public Administration and Development Management. Retrieved from https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/Reports/UN-E-Government-Survey-2018.