Improvement of public administration in the sphere of solid household waste management
AbstractProblem setting. One of the most actual environmental problems in Ukraine is the accumulation and utilization of the solid household waste. Due to the considerable volumes of garbage accumulation, Ukraine is considered to be the one of the most technically inflicted countries in the world. In its experience of solid domestic waste treatment, our state is for a few decades behind the developed countries of Europe. There are tens of thousands of spontaneous dumps in Ukraine and more than 6 500 official landfills.Recent research and publications analysis. The analysis of researches on the assessment of the status of waste disposal sites in Ukraine has shown the lack of scientific works on the integrated assessment and forecast of solid waste landfills’ state and the minimization of their impact on the environment. The imperfection of modern measures to minimize the impact of dumps on the environment and the lack of an effective monitoring system necessitate the development of a set of measures to ensure the ecological safety of landfills.Aim of the article. To study the problem of solid waste accumulation and utilization in Ukraine and to identify ways of public governance’s improvement in the sphere of dealing with them.Main material. Hundreds of thousands of tons of solid household waste are being collected annually in urban landfills. Location, arrangement and operating conditions of most sewage dumps do not meet regulatory requirements, this increases the ecological danger of these objects. There are about 2000 objects in Ukraine, which are organized without projects and engineering and hydrogeological exploration. The consequence of this is the pollution of groundwater by filtrate and the migration of pollutants along with ground and underground flows.Due to widespread problems with solid household waste throughout Ukraine, the entire power vertical faces this question. At the local level, attempts to start a business in the sphere of waste sorting and recycling have taken place for several years. There are a lot of reports on the building of waste sorting and waste recycling enterprises in different regions of Ukraine.The garbage market, where it would be possible to sell secondary raw materials, has not yet been developed in Ukraine. According to experts, for example, waste produced only by the capital itself, can be estimated at 3 billion UAH in a year. Thus, tens of billions of hryvnias can be got for the country’s secondary raw materials. It has been estimated, that 100 waste processing plants are needed in order to clean the country from garbage.Taking into account the general difficult economic situation in the country, experts see the solution of this issue in attraction of foreign investments into the construction of such enterprises. For Ukraine there is a need for a state waste management strategy.Positive trends in the sphere of state regulation of the waste management system can be seen in recent years, but Ukraine has not created the appropriate legal and regulatory framework yet that would gradually reach the requirements of the European legislation. Conclusions of the research. The enshrined regulations of national rules on disposal and solid waste management are currently not implemented fully. This calls for the improvement of enforcement practice on this issue, as well as the introduction of amendments and additions to existing legal acts. It is necessary to develop an effective state program that would include a complex of state measures for the creation of specialized enterprises for sorting and processing of solid waste in Ukraine, to conduct a series of educational actions among citizens. Ukrainian legislation on the effective solution of the problem of solid household waste management should be based on national characteristics and positive experience of relevant European legislation in this sphere. And the attraction of foreign investments in the waste recycling industry will definitely contribute to the improvement of the ecological situation in Ukraine.
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