European practices of providing of efficiency of self-organizations institutions of population in the context of public services
AbstractThe research revealed that European countries devote sufficient attention to ensuring the effectiveness of the institutions of self-organization in the context of their public services. The most common areas where they operate are a system of health, education and assistance during emergencies. The study showed that in the development of public services, there were significant transformations in terms of subject-provider. Historically it was confessional organizations working on a voluntary basis, and linked their activity with the realization of Christian mission. Subsequently, when there had been formation of a «welfare state», the state took over responsibility for the area of public services. In favor of institutions of self-organization has been a change in the system when it became clear that they are best in the provide public services, especially in the social sphere, because they are the demonstrating of social needs. The main mechanisms of cooperation between institutions of self-organization and the public sector are, first, subsidies for statutory activities of the organization. Another mechanism is delegating services or outsourcing and in this case contracts mostly are for one year with possibility of further extension. In addition there is auxiliary element of providing of effectiveness institutions of self-organization, it consists in deprivation of their donors from taxes. Although institutions of self-organization are financed mainly by public authorities, they remain independent, because they have opportunity of funding from other sources. German experience showed that the starting point in the system of public services is the understanding of the necessity of paying taxes as acknowledgment of the rights of all members of society. That is why every taxpayer expects to receive public services at the appropriate level. This unwritten rule contributes to a very high level of provision of public services through an adequate level of financing carried out by persons with appropriate competence and qualifications. The example of Portugal discloses the status of self-organization institutions as public benefit organizations, which provides them of advantages, particularly in competition with private sector organizations. However, in the light of practical implementation of the principle of subsidiarity and other elements of decentralization is appropriate to introduce European experience in the domestic soil in the context of attracting self-organization institutions in the scope of public services delivery. The results of the study formulated the main components of a mechanism to ensure effectiveness of the self-organizations institutions in the provision of public services: subsidies of statutory activities; delegation of services; regulatory support; recognition of the status of self-organization institutions as public benefit organizations; limitation of agreements terms.
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